Mount Merapi in Bahasa Indonesia called ‘Gunung Merapi’ is an active stratovolcano located in Indonesia, it is on the border between Yogyakarta and Central Java.
Mount merapi is also the most active volcano in Indonesia which has erupted regularly since 1548. Gunung merapi is located approximately 17 mi north of Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta is the capital of the central java that has about 2.4 million inhabitants.
There are thousands of people live on near this mountain, within the villages with height is around 5,600 ft above sea level. It is not something new when you can the smoke occurring from the top of Mount Merapi, besides, couple of eruptions have also caused fatalities. Pyroclastic flow from a large explosion killed 27 people on 22 November 1994, mostly in the town of Muntilan, west of the volcano. Another large eruption occurred in 2006, shortly before the Yogyakarta earthquake.
In light of the hazards that Merapi poses to populated areas, it has been designated as one of the Decade Volcanoes. On 25 October 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within the range of a 20 km (12 mi) zone were told to evacuate. Officials said, about 500 volcanic earthquakes had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of 23–24 October, and that the magma had risen to about 1 kilometer (3,300 ft) below the surface due to the seismic activity. On the afternoon of 25 October 2010 Mount Merapi erupted lava from its southern and southeastern slopes.
The mountain was still erupting on 30 November 2010, but due to lowered eruptive activity on 3 December 2010 the official alert status was reduced to level 3. The volcano is now 2930 meters high, 38 meters lower than before the 2010 eruptions. The Mount Merapi characteristic has been changed Since the big eruption happened in 2010. The smoke occurred up to 2,000 meters high on 18 November 2013 from the Mount Merapi, it is one of its first major phreatic eruptions after the 2010 eruption.
According to the researchers this eruption emerged because of the combination of abundant rainfall and the hot volcanic gases effect.